Los mercados financieros: Explicado de forma sencilla

¡Los mercados financieros se hunden y las economías están al borde del colapso! ¿Quién no ha escuchado alguna vez esta frase en el telediario o la ha leído en los periódicos?

Antes de invertir, es importante saber en qué entorno nos encontramos. Para ello, es muy importante saber qué son los mercados financieros y ver qué posibilidades e instrumentos nos pueden ofrecer.

Contenido


¿Qué son los mercados financieros?

Qué son los mercados financieros

Podemos definir al mercado financiero como un lugar físico o virtual, en el cual se reúnen un grupo de compradores y vendedores con el objetivo de establecer el precio de un determinado activo a partir de la ley de la oferta y demanda.

El mercado financiero está compuesto a su vez por otros mercados, en los cuales se negocian diferentes activos financieros. Según el activo que desees invertir, deberás dirigirte a un mercado u otro.

Para que lo puedas entender mejor. Cuando uno tiene que hacer la compra, normalmente acude al supermercado. Esta gran superficie suele estar dividida en varios pasillos, y según lo que uno quiera comprar, irá al pasillo de las bebidas, de la carne, del pescado, de la fruta, de la verdura, etc…

Pues un supermercado es una pequeña representación de lo que son los mercados financieros. Cada pasillo representa un mercado dentro del supermercado.

Lo único que les diferencia es que en el supermercado compras alimentos y productos terminados a un precio estipulado. Mientras que en los mercados financieros compras activos financieros cuyo precio se establece a través de la oferta y demanda.

Funciones del mercado financiero

Muy bien todo esto, pero ¿Cuáles son sus funciones?

  • Pone en contacto a los compradores y vendedores que quieran intercambiar activos financieros.
  • Proporciona liquidez.
  • Fija un precio a los activos.
  • Reduce los plazos y costes de intermediación.

Tipos de mercados financieros

tipos de mercados financieros


1. Renta variable

Este es el mercado más conocido. ¿Te suena la Bolsa? Pues, si quieres comprar alguna acción de alguna empresa que cotice en Bolsa tendrás que acudir a este mercado. 

En él, se negocia todos aquellos activos financieros cuya rentabilidad es incierta. Es decir, que su precio va fluctuando, bien al alza o a la baja sin saber qué rentabilidad obtendrás.


2. Renta fija

Si buscas un menor riesgo y quieres saber la rentabilidad que obtendrás con tu inversión, entonces este es tu mercado.

En él, encontrarás las deudas que han sido emitidas por el Estado o por alguna empresa privada con el objetivo de captar financiación

En este caso, uno presta su dinero al Estado o empresa, y a cambio, recibe unos intereses en el plazo pactado.


3. Materias primas (Commodities)

Conocido también como el mercado de los commodities, este mercado se centra en la compra/venta de materias primas. Es decir, en él podrás adquirir todos aquellos productos que no hayan sufrido alguna tipo de transformación.


4. Divisas (Forex)

Popularmente conocido como Forex. Dentro de los mercados financieros, es el mercado más grande y líquido. Para que te des cuenta de su importancia, en este mercado se negocian diariamente 5 billones de dólares. En él, podrás comprar las principales monedas internacionales.


5. Derivados

Como podemos intuir de su nombre, un derivado es un producto cuyo valor deriva del precio de otro subyacente. Este subyacente puede ser una acción, renta fija, materias primas, divisas o tipos de intereses, entre otros.

Son productos complejos con un nivel de riesgos elevado. Están sujeto al efecto del apalancamiento, siendo este un arma de doble filo, ya que uno puede multiplicar tanto sus ganancias como sus pérdidas.


6. Criptomonedas (Bitcoin)

Seguramente hayas oído hablar del Bitcoin u otras criptodivisas como Ethereum, Ripple o Litecoin.

Una criptomoneda es una moneda digital que a través de internet permite realizar pagos de forma instantánea sin que ninguna institución la controle y utilizando como tecnología una cadena de bloques conocido como Blockchain.

El Bitcoin fue creado por Satoshi Nakamoto en el 2009 y desde entonces se ha vuelto cada vez más famoso.

¿Tenemos antes nosotros a un nuevo mercado? El tiempo lo dirá…

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